In this post, we reveal everything you need to know about sodalite, including its meaning, benefits, properties and uses. Let's dive in!
Sodalite is a favored blue stone amongst many in the crystal healing community. It’s both relentless yet gentle, all at once, which has earned it a place in the daily work of energy healers around the world. Here’s everything you need to know about this beginners stone.
In this article we discuss the following:
- Sodalite Meaning
- What is Sodalite?
- Spiritual Meaning of Sodalite
- Sodalite Pronunciation
- What is Sodalite Good for?
- What Does Sodalite Look Like?
- What is Sodalite Made of?
- What Color is Sodalite?
- Is Sodalite Toxic?
- Is Sodalite Rare?
- Sodalite Benefits
- Sleeping with Sodalite
- Sodalite and Diabetes
- Where is Sodalite Found?
- African Sodalite
- Sodalite in New Mexico
- Sodalite in Washington State
- Sodalite in Brazil
- Sodalite Properties
- Sodalite Healing Properties
- Sodalite Chakra
- Sodalite Throat Chakra
- Sodalite Third Eye Chakra
- Sodalite Metaphysical Properties
- Can Sodalite Get Wet?
- Sodalite Uses
- How to Use Sodalite for Meditation
- Sodalite Beads
- Sodalite Beads Meaning
- Blue Sodalite Beads
- Sodalite Sphere
- Sodalite Pendulum
- Sodalite Angels
- Sodalite Heart
- Sodalite Skull
- Sodalite Pipe
- Sodalite vs Other Stones
- Sodalite vs Lapis Lazuli
- Difference Between Lapis Lazuli and Sodalite
- Blue Aventurine vs Sodalite
- Iolite vs Sodalite
- Lazurite vs Sodalite
- Types of Sodalite
- Raw Sodalite
- Sunset Sodalite
- Sunset Sodalite Meaning
- Sunset Sodalite Healing Properties
- Sunset Sodalite Metaphysical Properties
- Tumbled Sodalite
- Natural Sodalite
- Sodalite Quartz
- Sodalite Colors
- Blue Sodalite
- Blue Sodalite Meaning
- Blue Sodalite Properties
- Orange Sodalite
- Orange Sodalite Meaning
- Purple Sodalite
- Purple Sodalite Meaning
- Green Sodalite
- White Sodalite
- Yellow Sodalite
- Dark Blue Sodalite
- Sodalite Jewelry
- Sodalite Necklace
- Sodalite Necklace Meaning
- Sodalite Bracelet
- Sodalite Ring
- Sodalite Pendant
- Sodalite Cabochon
- Sodalite Earrings
- How to Care for and Cleanse Sodalite
- How to Charge Sodalite
- How Much is Sodalite Worth?
- Sodalite for Sale
- Fluorescent Sodalite for Sale
- Sodalite Price
- Sodalite Price Per Carat
- Sodalite Granite Price
- Fake Sodalite
What is Sodalite?
Sodalite stone is a rich, royal blue mineral rock that forms beneath the surface of the Earth without the influence of mankind. The stones range from totally opaque to totally translucent, which is something not a lot of people know as most sodalite sold within the contemporary market appears to be 100% solid.
Sodalite crystal is an ally to every person who brings it into their personal field for the purpose of energetic work, or general crystal healing. We’ll break down each of the individual sodalite uses shortly, as well as where to find it, how to maintain it, and what exactly to expect from working with sodalite on a regular basis.
Spiritual Meaning of Sodalite
Sodalite gemstones were only discovered fairly recently, in Greenland in 1806. It’s not unlikely that ancient civilizations had stumbled upon these rocks at some point in history, but for the most part we have no way of knowing when or where as there have been no distinct discoveries in that regard as of yet.
The sodalite stone zodiac is associated with that of the Sagittarius sign; namely, people born between mid November to mid December. These stones make for great gifts to anyone celebrating birth during this time.
Pronunciation of sodalite is easier than most would think; there is no trick to the reading or saying of this word. One pronounces it simply as follows: “soda-lite”.
Some prefer to put emphasis on the first syllable, while others put the emphasis on the last. Both are acceptable and there is no mistaking which crystal is being referred to.
What is Sodalite Good for?
The sodalite energy and powers are great for beginners. This is one stone that we always recommend to any individual who is looking to connect with the blue ray energy, but is not too familiar with the crystal healing world or what to look for in a specific stone.
Sodalite is embraced by experienced energy workers, too. Acquiring a piece early on in your crystal journey means you’ll have a lifelong companion.
What Does Sodalite Look Like?
Physically, sodalite looks a lot like lapis lazuli, and is often mistaken for these rich blue stones. Sodalite actually contains a lot of lapis rock within its crystalline structure, so it’s not a coincidence that the vibrancy of these blues are so easily confused.
What is Sodalite Made of?
Sodalite mineral is of the feldspathoid group, and it is a stone with a very high sodium content. Within the sodalite group, sodalite rock can be a member of either the auyne, nosean, lazurite and tugtupite compounds.
What Color is Sodalite?
Sodalite blue and white stones are the more common variations and would be considered traditional sodalite. These rocks also happen to form in shades of gray, pink, green, yellow, violet, or occasionally even as what is known as fluorescent sodalite, which exhibits a bright red-orange hue.
Is Sodalite Toxic?
Within the mineral world, sodalite is known for being one of the most toxic rocks on the planet when broken down into small, ingestible fibers. Some call it blue asbestos, which is a good indication as to just how dangerous certain groups feel these stones to be.
What you need to know is that sodalite is easy to use safely and harmlessly, so long as it is simply kept away from water. Yes, the stones contain aluminum, which will release into h2o and threaten the life of any human being who consumes it thereafter.
Is this a very real danger? Yes. Is it very easy to avoid? Also yes. Don’t let the Internet scare you out of working with these powerful stones. You wouldn’t put toxins into your drinking water on a regular day; sodalite is no different.
Is Sodalite Rare?
Within the contemporary crystal market, sodalite is considered to be somewhat rare and uncommon in most places on Earth.
Somehow in spite of this, sodalite retails nowhere near what other rare gemstones tend to cost, and, as a result, it is still one of the most affordable and accessible stones worldwide, despite the “rare” status it carries.
Sleeping with Sodalite
Sodalite is sought after by many who struggle with the realm of sleep. Sodalite dreams are a real thing, but what is actually happening is that the stone is pacifying your active mind to the point that messages from higher planes can enter into your slumber realm.
Those who battle with night terrors and general insomnia have found great relief in using these stones, as they pull even the most relentless individuals into REM within minutes. If you’re looking to make a more meaningful connection with your sleep patterns and energetic exchanges therein, find a sodalite stone that you can keep under your pillow, or next to your bed.
Sodalite and Diabetes
A lot of healers promote the use of sodalite for the purpose of correcting digestive disorders. In the process, it is said that diabetes can be both corrected and/or prevented.
Many carry this stone around religiously, never letting it get more than a meter away from their physical body, as their diabetic state is kept perfectly in check so long as the stones are physically present.
Of course, there is no scientific backing of this work in mainstream medicine, but the sheer fact that thousands of people receive relief from simply carrying around these rocks is compelling.
Where is Sodalite Found?
In Africa, sodalite is found in parts of northern Namibia. The deposits here are small, as are the excavation projects that lead to the mining of these stones.
As far as things currently stand, there are no other known sodalite deposits on the African continent, though mineralists find this difficult to believe or accept and there are many who remain confident that other sources of this particular rock will be discovered elsewhere in the terrain in the coming years.
Sodalite in New Mexico
There are a handful of sodalite deposits across the United States, and one worth mentioning is the Cerrillos District, in Santa Fe, New Mexico.
These stones were discovered fairly recently and are still being brought up and out of the surface of the earth. They are greatly contributing to the ever increasing global demand for sodalite worldwide. Today, it can be costly to acquire a decent sized piece of these stones.
Sodalite in Washington State
Washington State is not typically known for being a place of mineral abundance, nor a great contributor to the mineral demand in general.
However, in recent years some forms of sodalite, jasper, opals and agates have been found in deposits situated in the outlying lands further away from the bustling city centers. Washington State sodalite is a rarity, as not a lot of it has been brought up, but it is in circulation and you may find it on certain e-commerce platforms.
Sodalite in Brazil
Brazilian sodalite is the most common, abundant and accessible form of sodalite globally. It’s known for being brilliant blue, superior in crystalline structure, and available in massive quantities that are even suitable for the purpose of crystal slabs for use in construction.
Sodalite Healing Properties
Earlier we touched on how certain individuals have found great aid in using sodalite for the balancing of their diabetic states. This is but one of the many healing properties that sodalite can offer to the human body.
Improved digestion comes standard when working with sodalite, but these stones also work behind the scenes to balance your metabolism as well. In turn, the immune system is boosted naturally and safely. In addition, any mineral deficiencies within the body are tended to, particularly that of calcium deficiency.
The organs tend to work better when sodalite is in the picture. This is likely due to the cleaning out of the lymphatic waste system that takes place over long term use of these stones.
Sodalite Throat Chakra
Which chakra does sodalite correspond with? Always one of two.
The dominant chakra with which sodalite works is that of the throat. The blue ray energy of this chakra corresponds perfectly with the blue hue of the stones, and blue crystals are known to have a certain natural affinity to this particular energy center.
Blue crystals that work with the throat chakra do so for the purpose of improved communication and encouraging the user to start speaking their truth.
For the physical world to be in balance, the throat chakra needs to be unblocked and wide open. There are no exceptions, and those who are resistant to this state will likely see imbalances arise in terms of physical health and well-being.
Sodalite Third Eye Chakra
Sodalite has a unique and special connection to the third eye chakra as well. The blue of the stones relates well to the indigo nature of this energy center, and sodalite finds it quite easy to unblock, decalcify and provide balance in this area.
That being said, sodalite will only ever start work on the third eye once the throat has been perfectly opened up and balanced. Until this happens, there is no use in the third eye being treated, as the flow will simply be blocked the minute it tries to move into the lower chakras.
Sodalite Metaphysical Properties
The sodalite magical properties are vast, but beginners will likely find that the stones bring a certain level of calmness to the mind, before they do anything else. These are crystals that promote rational thought above all else; there is no room for mistrust, lack of intuition or severe subjectivity.
You’ll find your thought patterns and mind in general to be rapidly expanding the more you work with your stone. More than this, sodalite offers intense emotional balance and can be instrumental in easing or preventing panic attacks.
If you need a boost in self-esteem, this is your go-to crystal! Self acceptance comes second nature to these rocks, and humans can learn a lot from simply embracing the essence of this energy.
Can Sodalite Get Wet?
The sodalite hardness lands at a 6 on the Mohs scale, which makes it a somewhat gentle yet durable crystal for use in the physical world. This takes on a different meaning when liquids are introduced, and sodalite in water is generally not something one should mess around with.
As mentioned, sodalite contains aluminum, and these particles tend to shed when these stones are submerged in water. Should someone accidentally ingest this water for any reason, it could be potentially fatal to the individual.
More than this, getting sodalite wet will generally result in the loss of shine to the stone. It’s simply better to leave water out of the picture altogether when working with sodalite crystals.
How to Use Sodalite for Meditation
It is common knowledge that use of crystals during meditation will work to deepen practice and potentially provide access into realms of higher intelligence not usually accessible to the individual in question.
One of sodalite’s uses in witchcraft is that of holding these stones for the purpose of releasing all unhealthy thoughts and emotions, so that the mind is free to venture deeper into a peace-state without distraction.
During meditation, simply hold your chosen piece of sodalite in your hands and allow the stone to do the rest. It is vital that you keep sodalite cleansed and recharged every time you use it for the purpose of meditation, so that contaminating energies do not conflict with your own frequency.
Sodalite Beads Meaning
Beads are always the most affordable and accessible form of crystal on the market. They are made with the offcuts from stones from around the world, so you’ll buy them in bulk bags and can then use them to make prayer amulets, jewelry or other healing tools to facilitate your practice.
Blue Sodalite Beads
Blue sodalite beads are common finds and are generally inexpensive. They are generally quite durable, so the occasional bump won’t result in a crack or shatter.
Blue sodalite beads are most often used in the making of crystal bracelets. We’ll take a closer look at the function of these pieces later on in this article — stay with us, it’s information worth knowing!
Large pieces of sodalite can be tumbled into perfect spheres, resembling crystal balls. These are great ornamental pieces for homes or offices, but they can be functional healing tools, too.
A sodalite sphere delivers all of the crystal properties to a user or environment simply by its frequency being allowed to permeate the surrounding space.
Experienced healers are less likely to use sodalite as a pendulum stone. It’s simply not the most effective crystal for the purpose of indicating energetic flow, as sodalite can be easily influenced by external energies or nearby metals.
That being said, beginners are encouraged to play around with sodalite as pendulums for the purpose of simply learning about how these tools work and what to expect, so that when a more powerful stone is present they know what questions to ask and how exactly to suspend the rocks.
Carved sodalite is common in marketplaces and online stores where people have been allowed to run wild with creativity. Sodalite angels are carved out of raw versions of these rocks and make for unique display pieces and meaningful gifts.
Crystal hearts make for wonderful stones to hold onto during mediation. A sodalite palm stone in a heart shape is usually quite flat and easy to hold between the hands whilst in a seated position.
Sodalite hearts are also great to use during sleep as they can fit comfortably under most pillows without offering any discomfort to the individual who has to lay a top of them. As we know, sodalite is a sleep healer and can help those who suffer from night terrors and insomnia.
Another form of carved sodalite comes in the form of skulls, also for the purpose of home or office display. These are great for bringing the benefits of the stone into, say, a child’s bedroom, where they perhaps would normally be quite adverse to displaying crystals in fear of not appearing “cool” enough.
Sodalite pipes are gorgeous new tools that have been popping up all over Etsy in recent years. You can smoke any and every sacred herb through these special carvings, and they are totally safe even if they become wet.
Pipes are sealed with a special polish that makes them washable and even submersible in water without the risk of aluminum leaching.
Sodalite vs Other Stones
Sodalite vs Lapis Lazuli
The dynamic duo, so often mistaken for one another. Sodalite and lapis lazuli can look identical, in certain instances. Generally speaking, however, sodalite tends to be a bit darker in hue, while lapis holds the more vibrant, bright blue luster.
Difference Between Lapis Lazuli and Sodalite
The stones are similar in that they both work very closely with the throat chakra, both are calming stones and both seek deeper connection to cosmic wisdom for the user in question.
They differ in that lapis is a little more powerful, and a little more mysterious. Sodalite, on the other hand, is a more gentle, gradual healer that doesn’t like to overwhelm with energy. It is more overt with its teachings, while lapis can remain quite undercover for large durations of the work period, expecting the user to simply blindly trust the process that is unfolding.
Blue Aventurine vs Sodalite
Blue aventurine is not a stone one hears of often, but it is another near-twin to sodalite and one that we need to address.
Sodalite is known for prominent white spots throughout its crystalline makeup. The spots on blue aventurine are more like flakes and are tiny when compared to those found on sodalite — telling them apart becomes child’s play given this fact.
Sodalite is also likely to feature slight black spots or patterns, which would never be found on any form of blue aventurine.
Iolite vs Sodalite
Iolite and sodalite have the exact same shade of blue within their crystalline structure, but the formation of that structure is totally, totally different. Iolite looks like blue glass, whereas sodalite is almost always totally opaque.
Iolite is far more comparable to rubies or sapphires, and usually holds a more purple tinge to its facade compared to sodalite which is blue to indigo.
Lazurite vs Sodalite
Lazurite is an incredibly rare stone, and, while it looks very similar to sodalite, it is very unlikely that you’ll ever find yourself in a situation where these two stones are being confused.
Lazurite occurs within metamorphic rocks, and is much softer than sodalite, rating just 5 on the Mohs scale.
Types of Sodalite
Rough sodalite, also known as raw sodalite, is how these stones are first found and brought up from beneath the surface of the Earth. They are unpolished, unshaped and offer a very rough mineral composition.
There are many who prefer working with raw crystals, as they find their frequencies to be less tampered with. This is personal preference, and it is easy to find raw, unrefined sodalite for sale on the contemporary market using the keyword “raw” during a search.
Sunset Sodalite Meaning
Sunset sodalite is a blended stone, featuring regular sodalite and feldspar. Visually, the stones are more streaky and marbled, with rich yellow or orange hues coming through the cracks.
Sunset sodalite is a new form of sodalite that was first found in Africa not all that long ago. We are still very much in the process of uncovering the energetic secrets that these stones hold, but there is little doubt amongst crystal users that they will be instrumental in energy healing of the future.
Sunset Sodalite Healing Properties
On a physical level, sunset sodalite is believed to be highly beneficial to the nervous system, stomach and digestive tract. Problems such as IBS and acid reflux can be targeted through work with these stones.
There is also speculation that sunset sodalite may help to balance individuals suffering from Crohn's disease, bringing gentle relief on a daily basis.
Sunset Sodalite Metaphysical Properties
If you tend to become overwhelmed with nervous or excited energy, sunset sodalite will calm it so that you are still able to react and behave rationally in ways that are of interest to your greater good.
Sunset sodalite might help us work better in groups, while simultaneously helping us understand why other people do or say certain things: things that, usually, might puzzle or upset us.
We get polished sodalite through a process known as tumbling. Tumbling involves a special machine that essentially tosses a crystal around until all sharp edges have been gently worn away, leaving a more rounded, smoother stone.
Natural sodalite is a term that might be used by retailers who want to place emphasis on the fact that their crystals are authentic and not man made fakes.
This is not to say that retailers who do not specify “natural” in their crystal descriptions are then by default selling counterfeit stones; it is rather something left to the discretion of the seller or the brand in question.
Similarly, some brands may label their sodalite as sodalite quartz. This is not a hybrid stone, but simply another way of referring to basic sodalite.
This label is used in some parts of the world, and not in others.
Blue Sodalite Meaning
Blue sodalite, as we know, is the most common color of sodalite in the world. Sodalite blue quartz is the default color of the stone that will come up when searching the Internet for sodalite to buy.
Blue Sodalite Properties
The blue sodalite properties are all those that we listed in detail earlier on in this piece. They are the basic benefits that are available to anyone who begins work with these stones, no matter their level of experience or prior work history.
Blue sodalite healing properties and blue sodalite metaphysical properties are two very different categories. We have explored both in detail and would encourage readers to scroll up to read each breakdown in full.
Orange sodalite is one of our personal favorite stones to look at. It’s a power duo of colors, offering both vibrant blue with bright orange streaks throughout the crystal body.
Orange Sodalite Meaning
Orange sodalite offers all of the regular properties associated with blue sodalite, although there is speculation that the orange streaks may make the stone more compatible with the second chakra, also known as the sacral chakra.
When left to form for a little longer than usual, sodalite can take on a purple hue if the mineral inclusions of the earth are in favor of this ray energy.
Purple sodalite is usually closer to a shade of violet, though there are some more pale versions that can look a lot like amethyst.
Purple Sodalite Meaning
Purple sodalite would also hold all of the regular sodalite properties. Being closer to violet ray energy, these stones would be better for the work that occurs with the third eye, as this chakra is represented by this very same color.
Purple sodalite is hard to come by and is considered quite rare. If you ever find a piece for sale consider yourself very lucky and do what you need to do to make it your own.
Green sodalite is typically mottled and patchy, and appears in a pale, moss-colored green that is close to that of green aventurine.
Green sodalite might stimulate the heart chakra a little more than regular sodalite can. For the most part, these stones simply offer the exact same healing properties as their bright blue counterparts, with little to no variation.
On rare occasions, sodalite forms with little to no pigmentation at all, forming what is known as gray or white sodalite.
It’s unclear as to what causes this phenomenon, other than mineral deficiencies at the time of formation. White sodalite is not particularly powerful but it is undeniably calming. These are attractive stones and would likely feature a lot more within the contemporary market, were they not so difficult to source.
Sometimes sodalite forms in jet black, looking a lot like onyx or tourmaline stones. Though rare, black sodalite is a powerful, protective force that can be used to ward off any negative energies that seek to attack the throat chakra.
Again, these are not easy stones to find and one needs to be very aware of fake or replica stones being sold off as the real thing. Some brands will happily send you tourmaline labeled as black sodalite as it is inexpensive on their end and they make a pretty profit in doing so.
Dark Blue Sodalite
Sodalite ranges from dark to light. The shade of blue in which it manifests depends entirely on the conditions during formation and the mineral inclusions in the ground at this time.
Dark blue sodalite holds the exact same healing properties as light blue sodalite: there is no difference. Some people live under the assumption that darker blue stones are more powerful than lighter blue ones, which is largely incorrect. The quality of the stone is what affects the potency, not the color.
Because sodalite works so closely with the throat chakra, we are always quick to recommend a choker-style necklace to anyone seeking aid in this energetic area.
Wearing sodalite as close to the throat chakra as possible is the best way of receiving all of the benefits these stones have to offer. More than this, they are highly attractive, fashionable pieces and great conversation starters.
Sodalite Necklace Meaning
If self expression, speaking up and general communication are the things you need help with, then a sodalite necklace should be on your ‘to buy’ list.
We also love that almost all crystal necklaces can double up as pendulums, when used correctly.
Crystal bracelets are ideal for anyone seeking physical healing from a particular stone, as they sit on the wrist where they have direct access to the bloodstream, and can deliver healing throughout the rest of the body.
If our list of healing properties for sodalite is of interest to you, get yourself a sodalite crystal bracelet and start wearing it daily. Over time, you’ll find that changes are occurring within your body for the better. These are particularly great pieces for anyone in need of help with diabetes.
A sodalite ring is a gentle yet potent way of introducing the magic of these stones into your daily experience. When worn during meditation, crystal rings can help the wearer get to deeper levels and increase their contact with intelligent infinity.
Sodalite rings are generally affordable pieces, unless of course they are set into precious metals such as gold or silver.
A sodalite pendant may be in the form of a necklace or pendulum, or it may be in the form of a charm that can go on all kinds of different jewelry.
Brands such as Pandora have been embracing crystal charms in their more recent collections, making these pendants more accessible to the mainstream markets.
One can definitely find high quality sodalite cabochon stones that have been cut, shaped and polished to the highest standard, making them collectible pieces.
A cabochon stone is typically an investment one makes with the intent of having the stone laid into a form of jewelry at a later stage. It gives the buyer the freedom to design their jewelry from scratch, as opposed to buying something readymade.
Sodalite earrings are wonderful, because they sit in close proximity to both the throat and the third eye chakras. From here, the frequencies of the stone are available to both energy centers and can work their magic as you simply go about your day.
How to Care for and Cleanse Sodalite
How to Charge Sodalite
Sodalite is not a self cleansing crystal and needs your help in staying in perfect working order. We recommend cleansing and recharging sodalite at least once a month so that contaminant energies are not able to interfere with your work.
Since sodalite is not considered a water safe crystal, rather use any of the following methods for cleaning and recharging:
- Leave sodalite under the light of the full moon overnight, retrieving it only the following day.
- Burn incense or sacred herbs over your stones, setting the intention for cleansing with your mind’s eye.
- Place sodalite on any other self-cleansing crystal and allow them to recharge together.
- Place sodalite on a bed of Himalayan salt for periods of up to 4 hours.
- Bury sodalite in the garden and leave it here for up to 48 hours.
- Pray or meditate over your sodalite stones, sending intent for cleansing as you do.
How Much is Sodalite Worth?
Sodalite for Sale
Despite being dubbed as a rare crystal, sodalite remains wonderfully affordable to all who seek to become owners of these stones. The sodalite value is determined by quality, origin and logistical factors.
Sodalite for sale sees rough cut 40g pieces retailing for between $2 and $4. Palm sized chunks are going for as little as $8, while a bulk supply of 1kg or more can be acquired for under $25. This is a very generalized sodalite price, but it seems to be the industry standard throughout the current commercial market.
Sodalite Price Per Carat
Industry standard is actually regulated by a scale that determines the current cost of a stone per carat as stipulated within a global context. At present, the exact price per carat of sodalite sits at $26.65.
Sodalite Granite Price
Earlier we touched on the notion of sodalite slabs being a major export for the Brazilian crystal market. Sodalite granite, due to the scale at which it needs to be excavated, doesn’t run cheap and the purchase of it is something that will likely be orchestrated by your contractors and building management professionals.
Fake or counterfeit sodalite is a major problem in the global crystal industry, as are so many other easily replicated stones.
The bright side is that the generally affordable nature of sodalite makes it hard for manufacturers to justify not sourcing the real thing, which means that levels of counterfeit stones are on a decrease.
Be vigilant when navigating the market and always look for feedback from previously satisfied customers who have purchased from the brand in the past. If there is any funny business you need to know about, someone somewhere will hopefully have reported it.
If you are interested in incorporating crystals into your life, you should consider a mindful breathing necklace made of a crystal that resonates with you. Mindful breathing jewelry made of crystals not only help provide the benefits of the crystal you choose to wear, but they can also be used to help slow your breath, leading to a greater sense of calm and serenity.